A robust brand equity system should include all the measures listed previously. It should be tailored to a particular company and industry. (At a minimum, the competitive set, personality attributes, and category benefit structure will vary by industry. Ways of measuring value and loyalty typically also vary by industry.) The measurement system should also include behavioral and attitudinal measures, especially for brand loyalty. Through regression analysis and other techniques, the system should determine attitudinal measures that best predict brand loyalty and other desired behaviors (predictive modeling). The system should be capable of analyzing brand equity by category or customer segment if required. (page 241)
To reduce risk, ERM should pay attention to both control and effectiveness in various cultures. Control is the effort to ensure that a specific outcome is achieved. It may be direct, as when an individual manages a task and all critical activities and decision points. Alternatively, it may be indirect, as when a manager establishes devices and techniques to monitor progress toward goals and reviews critical activities and decision points. We have already seen that direct and indirect forms of control have applications in enterprise risk management. The chief risk officer or other leader of a central risk function is not likely to have direct management control over risks. Rather, the chief risk officer exerts control through the indirect process of influencing risk owners. (page 181)
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